Category Archives: Biology B1

How our bodies defend themselves against infectious diseases

Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and understanding to: ■ relate the contribution of Semmelweis in controlling infection to solving modern problems with the spread of infection in hospitals ■ explain how the treatment of disease has changed as a result of increased understanding of the action of antibiotics and immunity ■ evaluate the consequences of mutations of bacteria and viruses in relation to epidemics and

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Diet and exercise

Healthy diet A healthy diet contains the right balance of the different foods you need and the right amount of energy. Carbohydrates, fats and proteins are used by the body to release energy and to build cells. Mineral ions and vitamins are needed in small amounts for healthy functioning of the body. Learning activity: use food labels to discuss saturated and unsaturated fats and

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Environmental change

Changes in the environment affect the distribution of living organisms Examples might include, but are not limited to, the changing distribution of some bird species and the disappearance of pollinating insects, including bees. Environmental effects on animals and plants Such changes may be caused by living or non-living factors such as a change in a competitor, or in the average temperature or rainfall. Using living

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Adaptations

To survive and reproduce, organisms require a supply of materials from their surroundings and from the other living organisms there. Competition by plants and animals Plants often compete with each other for light, water, space and nutrients from the soil. Animals often compete with each other for food, mates and territory. Definition of adaptation Organisms, including microorganisms, have features (adaptations) that enable them to

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Performance-enhancing drugs used in the sports industry

There are several types of drug that an athlete can use to enhance performance. Some of these drugs are banned by law and some are legally available on prescription, but all are prohibited by sporting regulations. Examples include: stimulants that boost bodily functions such as heart rate anabolic steroids (e.g. testosterone injections) which stimulate muscle growth.   The most famous abuse of performance-enhancing drugs occurred in

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Misuse of legal and illegal recreational drugs

Legal recreational drugs include alcohol and nicotine. Illegal recreational drugs include ecstasy, cannabis and heroin. Recreational drugs may have adverse effects on the heart and circulatory system. Cannabis smoke contains chemicals which may cause mental illness in some people. The overall impact of legal drugs (prescribed and non-prescribed) on health is much greater than the impact of illegal drugs because far more people use them. Many recreational drugs

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Thalidomide: a drug that causes serious side effects to unborn babies

Thalidomide is a drug that was originally developed as a sleeping pill. It was also found to be effective in relieving morning sickness in pregnant women. The problems arose when thalidomide was used with pregnant women, because it had not been tested with women who were pregnant. Unfortunately, many babies born to mothers who took the drug were born with severe limb abnormalities. The

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