Category Archives: 1.5 Other useful substances from crude oil

Ethanol

Structure Like alkenes and alkanes, ethanol is another type of organic (carbon-based) compound. Ethanol is a two-carbon length alcohol. All alcohol molecules possess at least one C-OH group, which is known as the functional group (gives the compound its properties). Ethanol has the structural molecular formula, CH3CH2OH However, this often abbreviated to C2H5OH Combustion of ethanol Ethanol combustion (burning) produces carbon

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Polymers from oil

Before we start, an excellent review of this entire topic has been produced by BP Education Polymerisation Alkenes can be used to make polymers such as poly(ethene) and poly(propene). In these reactions, many small molecules (monomers) join together to form very large molecules (polymers). The polymerisation reaction occurs in the presence of a Ziegler-Natta catalyst. The polymerisation process is shown in the images,

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Obtaining useful substances from crude oil (cracking)

Cracking (type of thermal decomposition) Hydrocarbons can be cracked (decomposed) to produce smaller, more useful molecules. There are two types of cracking process that achieve thermal decomposition: catalytic cracking and thermal cracking. Catalytic cracking: the alkane is heated and the vapour is passed over a hot zeolite (aluminosilicate) catalyst. The reaction occurs at around 500ºC. Thermal (steam) cracking: the alkane vapour

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Ethanol production

Hydration of ethene Alcohols are produced industrially by hydration of alkenes in the presence of an acid catalyst. Ethanol is produced by the reaction of ethene and steam using a phosphoric acid catalyst. Fermentation Ethanol is also produced industrially by fermentation of glucose. The conditions for this process. Ethanol produced industrially by fermentation is separated by fractional distillation and can then be used as a

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