C2.3 Atomic structure, analysis and quantitative chemistry
The relative masses of atoms can be used to calculate how much to react and how much we can produce, because no atoms are gained or lost in chemical reactions. There are various methods used to analyse these substances.
Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and understanding to evaluate sustainable development issues relating the starting materials of an industrial process to the product yield and the energy requirements of the reactions involved.
Assessment and practical opportunities
■ investigating food colours using paper chromatography
■ working out the empirical formulae of copper oxide and magnesium oxide
■ calculating yields, for example magnesium burning to produce magnesium oxide or wire wool burning to produce iron oxide
■ there are opportunities in this section to build in the idea of instrumentation precision, eg for the collection of gases, the use of boiling tubes, gas jars or gas syringes
■ copper sulfate – hydration/dehydration
■ heating ammonium chloride in a test tube
■ adding alkali and acid alternately to bromine water or to potassium chromate solution
■ ‘blue bottle’ reaction (RSC Classic Chemistry Experiments no. 83)
■ oscillating reaction (RSC Classic Chemistry Experiments no.140).